Reagena is the forerunner in the diagnostic products for zoonoses
Zoonosis are animal transmitted infectious diseases, which are diagnosed based on the direct or indirect detection of the pathogen in the tissue specimen such as blood or cerebrospinal fluid. There are tens of zoonotic diseases, of which hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HRFS), Lyme borreliosis and tick born encephalitis (TBE), are the most common to us. Also, Covid-19 pandemics originates from animals according to the current understanding.
Reagena Ltd is specialized on developing and manufacturing diagnostic products for the animal transmitted infections. We have placed on the markets very essential diagnostic rapid and EIA tests for diagnosis of acute HRFS and TBE infections. Just recently, we amended our zoonosis portfolio with the rapid and EIA tests for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis and neuroborreliosis.
Borrelia is a spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by genus Ixodes ticks. Borrelia can cause an infection, which is called borreliosis or Lyme disease. It infects human via tick bites. Incubation time from the tick bite to the first symptoms is 3-30 days. Quite commonly, prevalence of the borrelia bacterium in the ticks is 20%-25%. Small rodents are the typical reservoirs, from which the bacterium is transmitted to the ticks via infected blood.
The early infection is diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms. The typical skin reaction is a reddish ring-shaped area around the place of bite (erythema migrans), which may not be detected, or it does not appear at all. If not detected and treated early enough, the disease can progress to chronic infection, which can be detected indirectly by demonstrating Borrelia specific antibodies in blood or in CNF.
Reagena’s Lyme diagnostic tests are based on the use of the well characterized antigens such as C6 (Vlse) and C10 (OspC), which can detect specific IgM / IgG class antibodies to Borrelia in blood or CNF specimens. We offer reliable rapid lateral-flow and EIA tests also for Tier2 testing strategy. Additionally, the portfolio includes a chemokine CXCL-13 lateral-flow test for diagnosis of neuroborreliosis. These products have attracted the scientific community and their performances have been published in the peer reviewed journals (links below).
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus belongs to flaviviruses, and it may cause an infection of the central nervous system (CNS). TBE virus, which is found in most European countries, is transmitted to human via the bite of hard ticks (e.g., Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes persulcatus).
TBE virus transmits to human in minutes after the tick sticks to the skin. Commonly, the first flu-like symptoms appear after a week from the tick bite, and they last a week thereafter. In most cases the disease does not progress from this stage, which means that many may have suffered the disease unknowingly.
Approximately 30% of the TBE cases progress to the meningitis after 3-21 days symptomless period. Typical symptoms include high fever, headache, and neck rigidity. Some may experience also vomiting, unconsciousness, seizures, and spasms. The second stage of the disease usually lasts 2-3 weeks. It may involve CNS with symptoms of meningitis, meningoencephalitis, meningoencephalomyelitis or meningoencephaloradiculitis. Also, paralysis may appear later.
On average, severity of the disease increases with patients’ age, and the case-fatality ranges from 1% to 35 % depending on the TBE virus subtype.
Acute TBE infection is diagnosed based on the clinical manifestation and by demonstrating the TBE virus specific IgM antibodies in blood samples. Our zoonosis portfolio includes a very specific and sensitive lateral-flow rapid test for demonstrating TBE specific IgM in blood samples. The test is easy-to-use, the result is available in 20 min., and the performance is comparable with the EIA tests. Read more from the links below.
Currently, over 20 different human pathogenic hantaviruses have been identified worldwide. Each virus species is carried primarily by a distinct rodent host and the viruses are transmitted to humans via the aerosolized urine, faeces, or saliva of chronically infected carrier rodents. Andes virus is the only person-to-person transmittable hantavirus. In Asia and Europe hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) whereas the American hantaviruses cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).
Hantavirus infection may be asymptomatic, or in worst cases, it can cause a lethal disease. Puumala virus transmitted by the bank vole is the most common hantavirus in Scandinavia. Typical symptoms appear after the incubation time of 2-3 weeks with headache, fever, vomiting, and back pain. The infection can be asymptomatic but, in some cases, it leads to the need for hospitalization. Mortality to the infection is 0.1%-0.3%.
Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is carried by the yellow necked mouse in the middle and eastern parts of Europe. The disease can be mild or severe. Saarenmaa virus (SAAV), which is carried by the same mouse species, causes mild or asymptomatic disease.
Hantaan-virus (HTNV) carried by the stripped field mouse in eastern parts of Asia causes tens of thousands of infections in China, whereas the Seoul-virus (SEOV) carried by the rats, is met also in some European countries.
The most mortal hantavirus is the Sin Nombre -virus, which is met in North America. This virus is carried by the deer mouse, and it causes HPS with mortality rate up to 50%. Also, Andes -virus carried by the long-tailed pygmy rice rat causes very severe HPS with mortality rate up to 30%. This virus in met primarily in some parts of the Latin America.
Acute infections caused by hantaviruses are detected by demonstrating specific antibodies in blood. In general, IgM antibodies, and in most cases also IgG antibodies, are already measurable in patients at the onset of symptoms. The infection leaves a lifelong immunity and IgG antibodies persist in blood for decades. Reagena provides very specific and sensitive lateral-flow and EIA tests to detect many acute hantavirus infections. You can read more about these tests from the links below.